REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

NAME OF PARTICIPANT : THELMA B. ACEBES

NAME OF ORGANIZATION : PHILIPPINE ATMOSPHERIC, GEOPHYSICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (PAGASA)

1. General Information on the Country:

1.1 Geography and Location

The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of around 7,100 islands and rocks above water. The country lies southeast of Asia, between latitudes 4 23' N and 2125'N and longitudes 116_E and 127_E.

The total land area of the Philippines is approximately 300,000 square kilometers, 92.3% of which is contained within 11 of the largest islands. The Philippines has a very extensive coastline stretching 34,600 km.

1.2 Social and Economic Conditions

Based on 1994 national census, total population is estimated at 68.6M and is expected to reach 78.4 by the year 2000. The population is scattered among cities and other urbanized areas like Metro Manila, southern Tagalog and Central Luzon regions. Metro Manila is populated by 8.9M.

Filipinos are basically of Indo-Malay racial stock, mixed with some Chines and Spanish ancestry. More than 80% of the population are Roman Catholics while other religions include Muslims and Protestants. Democracy is the present form of government. Filipino is the national language with more than 87 other local dialects.

The national average income of a family of 5 is P65,186 wherein an average urban family earns P89,571 while that of rural family earns P41,199. In 1993, the Gross National Product (GNP) was 1,507,956 X 106 PHP based on current prices. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by industrial origin at current prices was 733,907 X 106 PHP. Major contributors to the GDP were the sectors of agriculture, fishing and forestry combined (23%); industry sector (34%(; and service sector (43%).

1.3 Climate

Due to the Country's archipelago characteristics and geographical location, the Philippines has a tropical maritime climate. The country is exposed to the Southwest monsoon, Northeast monsoon, North Pacific Trades, Intertropical Convergence Zone, tail end of the cold front, easterly waves, the passage of tropical cyclones and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. The climate of the country is influenced by the numerous mountains and valleys, the mountain ranges and the surrounding sea. The climate of the Philippines can be described based on the characteristic features of the following weather elements.

Rainfall abnormalities are caused by occurrences of tropical cyclones in the vicinity and associated intensification of the southwest and northeast monsoons. On the other hand, drought conditions are attributed to the occurrence of below the expected number of tropical cyclones, the low rainfall amount during the southwest and northeast monsoons and the occurrence of the ENSO phenomenon.

The Philippines is host to many natural disasters, particularly tropical cyclones, droughts, floods, earthquakes and the eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo. Among the different countries in the world, The Philippines has the most number of passage of tropical cyclones, averaging 19 up to 20 tropical cyclones per year. The Year 1993 was a record year when 32 tropical cyclones visited the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Associated with tropical cyclones and heavy rainfall are floods and storm surges of which many areas of the Philippines also suffer from droughts which are usually associated with the occurrence of El NiÒo Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 produced a large, transient increase in stratospheric aerosols which resulted in a surface cooling over about 2 years estimated from observations to about 0.4C (IPCC,1994).

2. Overview of Climate Monitoring and/or observations

2.1 PAGASA's Observation Network

At present, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) is under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Figure 2 shows the organizational setup of the PAGASA. It is the sole government agency mandated to provide adequate and effective meteorological, geophysical and astronomical services. In order to effectively carry out its mandate, the PAGASA presently operates and maintains a network of synoptic, agromet, radar and rain/climat stations all over the country. As of present, the PAGASA network is consists of 60 synoptic stations, 23 agromet stations and around 150 climat/rain/visual storm signal stations. There are also 5 radar stations strategically located in typhoon prone areas in the country. Figure 3 shows the geographical location of synoptic stations in the country.

The PAGASA receives voluminous reports in the form of coded message of weather observations every 3 hours not only from stations within the archipelago but from other countries as well. The real-time data from international sources are received by teletype transceivers through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) while local weather stations data are received through voice transmission (radiophone). With the completion of a new and modern Meteorological Telecommunication System (MTS), which is an automatic system of data exchange, near real-time data could be obtained from all stations through computerized communication equipment. All collected data are then inputted to computers for sorting, decoding and arrangement of various meteorological parameters. The processed data are then used as inputs to numerical weather prediction models.

 

3. Current Climate Change Research Program In the Country

3.1 Creation of Inter Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC)

The interagency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC) was created by Administrative Order No. 220 signed by President Corazon Aquino on May 8, 1992. The committee is chaired by the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), co-chaired by the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and also represented by the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), Environment Management Bureau (EMB), National Mapping and Resources Information Authority (NAMRIA) and PAGASA.

The functions of the IACCC are:

The IACCC is now in the process of updating its organization and functions to cope with the increasing need to combat global warming. The committee will formulate policies and measures to limit GHG emissions, protect/enhance GHG sinks and adapt to global warming.

3.2 Philippine Country Study to Address Climate Change

PAGASA is the lead agency in the Philippine Country Study to Address Climate Change under the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Philippine Country Study started in September 30, 1994 and will end by in March 1997. Its overall objective is the development of Philippine capabilities to address climate change issues.

The study elements included in the Country Study are:

Current Inventory of projects in the country on climate change is shown in Table 1

Other government agencies participating in the Philippine Country study are:

* Environment Management Bureau (EMB)

* Forest Management Bureau (FMB)

* Department of Energy (DE)

* Department of Agriculture ( DA)

* National Power Corporation (NPC)

* National Irrigation Administration (NIA)

* Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS)

* National Mapping Resource and Information Authority (NAMRIA)

* Bureau of Soil and Water Management (BSWM)

4. Meteorological data set that can be made available to SEA-START RC

Database

Period Stored

No of Stations

Data Format

1. Daily Database
1.1 Synoptic data 1961 - 1996 50 Stations ASCII,CLICOM
1.2 Agromet data From Start to 1996 23 Stations ASCII,CLICOM
1.3. Climat /Rain data 1951 - 1996 210 Stations ASCII,Dbase III
2. Hourly Database 1980 - 1985 6 Stations CLICOM
1990 - 1995 5 Stations CLICOM
3. Monthly Data

3.1 For all elements for

Both synoptic & Agromet


1961 - 1995

 

50 Stations


ASCII

4. Decadal Values

(Synoptic data)

 

1961 - 1995


50 Stations

ASCII
5. Normal Values

1961 - 1990

1961 - 1995

50 Stations ASCII
6. Extreme Values As of 1995 55 Stations ASCII

The listing of stations Table 2 and data structure in Table 3 .

5. Enhancement of the Agency's Data Management Capabilities

The principal objective of data management is to ensure that the data and information requirements of its user community are satisfied. To fulfil this reponsibility, it must provide for the effective acquisition, processing, storage, documentation, retrieval and dessemination of data. The systems supporting the data management strategy must be robust and reliable. And the principal yardstick by which data mangement will always be judged is wether data users have access to the data they require.

From the meteorological standpoint, data management covers the whole life cycle of data: from observation through intermediate storage and transmission phases, to ultimate archival or disposal. The Climatology and Agrometeorology Branch (CAB) is mandated with the responsibility for the collection, quality control, processing storage and retrieval of meteorological, climatological, agrometeorological and allied data information, the provision of user services and related activities, the CAB has been directing much of its resources in building up its capability to meet increasing demands for more precise data and information, given its limited resources and the growing complexity of collecting, processing and archiving data. On a monthly basis alone CAB collects data from 53 synoptic stations, 23 agromet stations and 210 climat/rain stations.

For its data processing activities, the CAB at present relies heavily on PC-based computing facilities, consisting of the 4-user CLICOM system , one 486 class desktop and 2 older PC-XT's These have proven to be grossly inadequate to meet even its barest minimum requirements.

As of the end of 1996, the Climate Data Section has incurred a backlog of 1,750 station-months of hourly data that have to be keyed-in to computer compatible media, processed, quality controlled and archived. And to obtain a zero-backlog in 2 years time, the CAB would need at least 18 workstations and 24 data encoders.

In response to the expectations and challenges for 1997, CAB proposes to enhance its data processing and user services, particularly for research and climate monitoring purposes, through the acquisition of at least 20 desktop computers. The desktop computers will be set up under a Local Area Network (LAN) environment. This will augment the CAB's existing computer facilities in order to meet its data processing requirements and enhance user services.


TABLE 1. PHILIPPINE INVENTORY OF PROJECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Project Title

Project Description

Contact Person

Institutions Involved


Environmental Management Audit of Selected Power Plants and Industries

To establish baseline data on the performance of different pollution mitigation equipment and environmental management practices power plants and energy industries.


Ms. Clarissa Cabacang


DOE- EPMD,

NPC,PNCC,

DENR,LLDA


National Inventory of Energy-Related Emissions

Develop a comprehensive national inventory of emissions on various energy project and energy-related activities.


Ms. Clarissa Cabacang


EMPD-DOE,

NPC,PNOC,

DENR, LLDA


Global and Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Programme

Establishment and operation of Background Air Pollution (BAPMON) and ozone monitoring stations using Dobson's Ozone Spectrophidometer


Dr. Aida Jose PAGASA,

Quezon Ave., Quezon City

Fax 922-78-13


PAGASA

World Weather Watch Programme
Operation and maintenance of network of Synoptic Weather Stations, Climatological rain stations, agrometeorological stations and visual storm signal stations


Dr. Aida Jose,

PAGASA,

Quezon Ave., Quezon City


TIROS-N/NOAA Series Satellite

Trashing and processng data


- do -

Project Title

Project Description

Contact Person

Institutions Involved


Climate Monitoring

Monitoring of chemistry acidity of Philippine precipitation

Use of satellite technology net only for operational weather monitoring but also for the enhancement of existing rainfall based crop condition assessment

Development and operationalization of a system for the enhancement of existing rainfall based condition

Establishment and operationalization of the Drought Early Warning and Monitoring Systems (DEWMS) in the Phils.

Derivation of indices of global anomalies


Vehicular Emmission Control Planning in Metro Manila

Establishment and operation of 5 air quality monitoring stations in Metro Manila

Erlinda Gonzales, EMB

EMB-DENR-NCR

Project Title

Project Description

Contact Person

Institutions Involved


Natural Forest Management, Industrial Forest, Plantation Development and National Reforestation Programs

Expansion of forest biomass especially of intensively managed forest.

Wilma Sabado Forest Management Bureau, Visayas, Quezon City

1990 Air Pollution Emission Inventory for Metro Manila

Air Quality Pollutants from Mobile, Stationary, and area sources inventory


Erlinda Gonzales,

EMB,

99-101 Topaz Bldg. Kamias Road Quezon City


EMB

Climate Change U.S. Country Study for the Philippines


This study will address all major elements being considered under the emerging Philippine National Action Plan for Global Climate Change

Study Elements are as follows:

A. Development of a National Inventory of

GHG Emissions and Sinks

B. Vulnerability Assessment and Evaluation

of Adaptations


Dr. Leoncio A. Amadore (PAGASA)


PAGASA,

DENR,DOE,

DFA,DECS,

DILG,DA,

NEDA,PIA,

DOST

Project Title

Project Description

Contact Person

Institutions Involved


C. Identification of Alternative programs and

Measures to Promote Mitigation of Climate

Change in the Philippines

D. Public Information and Education

Campaign Program on Climate Change

Issues and Concerns

E. Development of National Action Plan


Methane Emissions from Ricefields

To quantify methane emission from major rice ecosystem in Asia

Ms. Rhoda Lantin (IRRI-Los BaÒos, Laguna)

IRRI

Tides and Tidal Phenomena Project


Maintenance of a network of Tide stations located in strategic ports/harbor as a means of providing oceanographic data and information

- aims to serve the maritime needs of its member countries and present interest in ASEAN Maritime research


Mr. Jose G. Solis, NAMRIA,

NCA Bldg.,

Fort Bonifacio ,

Makati City


WMO-IOC,TOGA, WOCE,

IGOSS (ISLP)

GLOSS


Biostratigraphy and Environmental Chemistry of Manila Bay

Distribution of recent foraminifera

Dr. Prescilla J.M. Matias (UP)

UP

TABLE 2: INVENTORY OF EXISTING DAILY DATABASE

1. SYNOPTIC STATIONS

Alt. Date Years of

Stan. No. Station Name Latitude Longitude Elev. Corr.Start Record

1. 435 ALABAT, QUEZON 14 01 N 122 01 E 5.0 0.6 1951 1951-1996

2. 432 AMBULONG,BATANGAS 14 05 N 121 03 E 10.0 1.3 1911 1951-1996

3. 232 APARRI, CAGAYAN 18 22 N 121 38 E 3.0 0.3 1902 1951-1996

4. 328 BAGUIO CITY 16 25 N 120 33 E 2256.0 SPL 1902 1951-1996

5. 333 BALER, QUEZON 15 46 N 121 34 E 6.0 0.7 1902 1951-1996

6. 135 BASCO, BATANES 20 27 N 121 58 E 11.0 1.3 1903 1951-1996

7. 752 BUTUAN, CITY 08 56 N 125 31 E 18.0 2.1 1979 1981-1996

8. 330 CABANATUAN 15 29 N 120 58 E 32.0 3.6 1937 1951-81/89-96

9. 748 CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY 08 29 N 124 38 E 6.0 0.7 1909 1951-1996

10. 431 CALAPAN,OR. MINDORO 13 25 N 121 11 E 40.5 4.7 1909 1951-1996

11. 336 CASIGURAN, QUEZON 16 17 N 122 07 E 4.0 0.5 1951 1951-1996

12. 546 CATARMAN, SAMAR 12 40 N 124 36 E 50.0 0.6 1948 1951-1996

13. 548 CATBALOGAN, SAMAR 11 47 N 124 53 E 5.0 0.6 1915 1951-1996

14. 526 CORON, PALAWAN 12 00 N 120 12 E 14.0 1.6 1949 1951-1996

15. 630 CUYO, PALAWAN 10 51 N 121 02 E 4.0 0.5 1902 1951-1996

16. 440 DAET, CAMARINES NORTE 14 07 N 122 57 E 4.0 0.5 1920 1951-1996

17. 325 DAGUPAN CITY 16 03 N 120 20 E 2.0 0.2 1902 1951-1996

18. 753 DAVAO CITY 07 07 N 125 39 E 18.0 2.1 1951 1951-1996

19. 741 DIPOLOG CITY 08 36 N 123 21 E 4.0 0.5 1951 1951-1996

20. 642 DUMAGUETE CITY 09 22 N 123 17 E 8.0 0.9 1911 1951-1996

21. 851 GENERAL SANTOS CITY 06 07 N 125 11 E 15.0 1.7 1951 1951-1996

22. 755 HINATUAN 08 22 N 126 20 E 3.0 0.3 1951 1951-1996

23. 324 IBA, ZAMBALES 15 20 N 118 58 E 4.7 0.6 1910 1951-1996

24. 637 ILOILO CITY 10 42 N 122 34 E 8.0 0.7 1902 1951-1996

25. 434 INFANTA, QUEZON 14 45 N 121 39 E 7.0 0.8 1926 1951-1996

26. 223 LAOAG CITY 18 11 N 120 32 E 5.0 0.6 1908 1951-1996

27. 444 LEGASPI CITY 13 08 N 123 44 E 17.0 1.9 1904 1951-1996

28. 747 LUMBIA 08 26 N 124 37 E 182.0 SPL 1971 1971-1996

29. 648 MAASIN 10 15 N 124 43 E 71.8 8.2 1972 1972-1996

30. 646 MACTAN AIRPORT, CEBU 10 19 N 123 59 E 12.8 2.7 1972 1972-1996

31. 751 MALAYBALAY, BUKIDNON 08 03 N 125 02 E 627.0 SPL 1948 1951-1996

32. 543 MASBATE, MASBATE 12 22 N 123 37 E 6.0 1.1 1904 1951-1996

33. 429 NAIA MIA),PASAY CITY 14 30 N 121 00 E 21.0 2.4 1951 1951-1996

34. 425 PORT AREA , MANILA 14 35 N 120 59 E 16.0 1.8 1951 1951-1996

35. 618 PUERTO PRINCESA 09 45 N 118 44 E 16.0 1.7 1914 1951-1996

36. 536 ROMBLON ,ROMBLON 13 00 N 122 00 E 47.0 5.4 1903 1951-1996

37. 538 ROXAS CITY 11 35 N 122 45 E 4.0 0.4 1949 1951-1996

38. 437 SAN FRANCISCO, QUEZON 13 21 N 122 31 E 45.0 5.1 1948 1951-1996

39. 531 SAN JOSE, OCC.MINDORO 12 21 N 121 02 E 0.3 0.4 1979 1981-1996

40. 428 SANGLEY POINT, CAVITE 14 30 N 120 55 E 3.0 0.3 1974 1974-1996

41. 430 SCIENCE GARDEN,Q.C. 14 39 N 121 03 E 43.0 4.9 1961 1961-1996

42. 653 SURIGAO CITY 09 48 N 125 30 E 39.0 4.4 1902 1951-78/88-96

43. 550 TACLOBAN CITY 11 14 N 125 02 E 3.0 0.2 1951 1951-1996

44. 644 TAGBILARAN CITY 09 37 N 123 51 E 6.0 0.9 1960 1961-1996

45. 427 TAYABAS, QUEZON 14 02 N 121 35 E 157.7 SPL 1970 1970-1996

46. 233 TUGUEGARAO, CAGAYAN 17 39 N 121 45 E 61.6 7.1 1951 1951-1996

47. 222 VIGAN, ILOCOS SUR 17 34 N 120 23 E 33.0 3.8 1902 1951-1996

48. 447 VIRAC (RADAR) 13 39 N 124 19 E 233.0 0.0 1968 1968-1996

49. 446 VIRAC SYNOP,CATANDUANES 13 35 N 124 14 E 40.0 4.6 1908 1951-1996

50. 836 ZAMBOANGA CITY 05 54 N 122 04 E 6.0 0.8 1951 1951-1996

INVENTORY OF EXISTING DAILY DATABASE SYSTEM

2. AGROMET STATIONS

YEARS OF

STN_NO. STATION NAME LATITUDE LONGITUDE ELEV. RECORD

1. 012 BPI EXPERIMENT STN. BAGUIO CITY 16 24 N 120 36 E 0.0 1972-1996

2. 014 BSU (MSAC) LATRINIDAD, BENGUET 16 27 N 120 35 E 1317.4 1976-1996

3. 022 BU. OF SOIL,CUYAMBAY,TANAY,RIZAL 140 35 N 121 21 E 0.0 1969-1996

4. 017 CLSU, MU—OZ, NUEVA ECIJA 15 43 N 120 54 E 76.0 1973-1996

5. 076 CMU, MUSUAN, BUKIDNON 08 08 N 125 00 E 0.0 1978-1996

6. 028 CSAC, PILI, CAMARINES SUR 13 34 N 123 16 E 35.0 1975-1996

7. 016 HACIENDA LUISITA, TARLAC 15 26 N 120 36 E 0.0 1967-1996

8. 011 ISU, ECHAGUE, ISABELA 16 42 N 121 40 E 83.2 1976-1996

9. 056 LA GRANJA, LA CARLOTA,NEGROS OCC. 10 24 N 122 56 E 96.0 1975-1996

10. 006 MMMSU BATAC, ILOCOS NORTE 18 03 N 120 34 E 12.1 1975-1996

11. 071 MSU MARAWI CITY, LANAO DEL SUR 08 00 N 124 18 E 0.0 1969-1996

12. 021 NATIONAL AGROMET RESEARCH STATION 14 38 N 121 00 E 42.0 1971-73/79-96

13. 151 NAS, UPLB, LOS BA—OS, LAGUNA 14 10 N 121 15 E 21.7 1977-1996

14. 026 PARAPOTO, MALINAO, ALBAY 13 23 N 123 42 E 0.0 1972-1990

15. 082 PCA, BAGO OSHIRO, DAVAO 07 02 N 125 31 E 0.0 1976-1996

16. 034 PNAC, ABORLAN, PALAWAN 09 26 N 118 33 E 0.0 1975-1996

17. 051 PSPC, MAMBUSAO, CAPIZ 11 26 N 122 36 E 0.0 1978-1996

18. 191 TWIN RIVERS, TAGUM,DAVAO DEL NORTE 07 24 N 125 51 E 0.0 1976-1996

19. 041 UEP, CATARMAN 12 31 N 124 40 E 3.5 1975-1996

20. 081 USM, KABACAN, NORTH COTABATO 07 07 N 124 50 E 0.0 1969-1994

21. 055 VISCA, BAYBAY, LEYTE 10 41 N 124 48 E 7.0 1975-1996


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